Note: I originally wrote this poem, preceded by its description, as an assignment for one of my courses, whereby we were supposed to draft a creative or poetic response to any of the themes in Muhammad Iqbal’s Complaint and Answer (Shikwa – Jawab-e-Shikwa). Now, my poetic expression is admittedly low-quality but I still believed that the theme of Divine Justice I identified in these works and the discussion built around it is worth sharing.
Footnotes to the poem are crucial.
The main theme of this poem titled ‘Raquel Arbitrates between God and the Spokesman for Muslims’ is reflection on the conversation between God and Muslims particularly in light of the idea of Divine Justice, and that the essence of ‘Muslimness’, as per Iqbal’s conception, may not be unique to Muslims alone.
In this poem, the Archangel of Justice and Fairness takes over the task of arbitrating between God and Muslims, in the interests of restoring peace and harmony in the heavens and the Universe. He realizes that Ultimate powers of arbitration and dispensing Justice lie with God, but God Himself appearing as the accused party is a very unusual and striking situation for the angel, and he is left with no other choice but to intervene as a third party in order to resolve this conflict between God and the Muslims. After all, he has been trained in the Just ways of God, by God himself. Apart from adjudication, this Archangel’s role is also important in that he is deeply familiar with his main occupation: the principle of Justice, which leads him to repeatedly emphasize its importance to persuade the Muslims to reconsider their complaint and position.
In the Complaint, Muslims repeatedly lament their suffering disloyalty at the hands of God, and express their resentment over seeing God favour ‘others’ over Muslims. There tone is, for the most part, of a jilted and betrayed lover, to the point that they even refer to God at one place as ‘harjaayi’, which literally means someone who will go to anyone, an unfaithful lover; someone who enters into a relationship, and then terminates without a reason, to unite, temporarily or otherwise, with someone else. One of the verses in the Complaint, in Urdu, reads like: Rahmatai’n hai’n teri aghyaar kay kashaano’n par. A.J. Arberry translates it as ‘But the showers of Thy mercy other thirsting souls assuage’ (p. 16). I feel Khushwant Singh’s translation captured the sentiment more accurately: ‘Your blessings are showered on homes of unbelievers, strangers all’ (p. 41). This captures the dismay of Muslims seeing God bless ‘others’, who Muslims believe do not deserve to be favoured, since Muslims alone are supposedly the special, chosen people of God. There are various references to this sentiment: ‘Be it so; bid us gone and let the earth belong to others’ (Arberry, p.20); ‘Yet Thou too, alas, art changed, now us, now others favouring’ (Arberry, p.24); ‘But that infidels should own the houris and the palaces – ah, woe!’ (Arberry, p. 18). Raguel begins by recounting these complaints, by Muslims, of blessing ‘others’ as well as those of being abandoned by God. The Archangel finds it curious that the Muslims’ sense of entitlement mainly arises from their martial victories, or their imagination that since they spread the word of the God, they had entered into a perpetual covenant with God whereby they deserve to be protected, indulged, and esteemed for the eternity. So, Raguel inquires them of what else have they accomplished, in the fields of self-development and creative intellect for instance, to make their mark in the eyes of God. In Complaint, Muslims’ shock at seeing non-Muslims thrive mainly springs from their belief that unbelieving peoples, in terms of the Muslim conception, do not deserve God’s attention. Khanda-zan kufr hai ehsaas tujhe hai kay nahee’n: Disbelief is loud with laughter; art Thou deaf, indifferent? (Arberry, p.17). The use of ‘kufr’ is crucial because Muslim seems to highlight that the successes of non-Muslim nations in the fields of economy, politics, culture imply a victory of infidelity over Islam, which conjures up a dichotomy of Islam vs. Kufr, in which everything not Muslim is kufr, and vice versa. Raguel reminds the Muslim how this division is not entirely clear since Quran often refers to the word kufr to mean ingratitude, and it does not necessarily and invariably have theological connotations. Thus, I submit, an ungrateful Muslim (characterized by incessant ‘complaining’), too, can have the qualities of kufr, just as a non-Muslim can have the qualities of a ‘true Muslim’, as we shall see shortly. Raquel also chastises the Muslim in the court for repeatedly asserting that without his (Muslim’s) existence, God’s name would cease to be remembered; For Raquel this is arrogance of radical proportions and he analogizes it to that of his former colleague Azazil, later Iblis, who was expelled from the heavens because of such a heightened sense of self-importance and superiority.
Raquel then looks at the argument of the defendant – God – and notices that, to all these charges of infidelity, God responds precisely, on the mark, with the reiteration of his Law of Justice. ‘The Creator’s law is justice, out of all eternity/ Infidels who live like Muslims, surely merit faith’s reward’ (Arberry, p.48); and ‘If there were one deserving, We’d raise them to regal splendor/ To those who seek, We would unveil a new world of wonder’ (Singh, p.66). For Raquel, this short reminder is of such substantial significance that it brings the case on the verge of closure by highlighting how there was never a breach of promise by God, rather He unequivocally communicated to His creation that all efforts, irrespective of faith professed, shall be proportionately rewarded, and by that logic, lack of effort to be met with disappointment. God sees human as His co-creator in shaping the world. So for Iqbal, a true Muslim is the one who embodies ‘khudi’ which can be defined as the ‘realization and expansion of self-hood’, thus a non-Muslim who adopts these ‘Muslim’ qualities is promised commensurate success and reward. Thus, the boundary between Muslim and non-Muslim is not merely theological rather a non-Muslim can choose to adopt a Muslim lifestyle by exerting, relying on, and developing himself. Raquel poses to Muslims, how they can claim to love and know a God and yet be unfamiliar with His principles and promises of Justice, which is an essential part of God’s reality, and his Oneness. If they were acquainted with these precepts before, they would not find any logic in complaining about betrayal and neglect, rather they would look at their condition and that of others in the light of this very justice dispensed. Raquel also recounts Words of the God from the Quran, and finds it curious how the Muslim, even though when he professes nearness with the Quran, displays an appalling unfamiliarity with the principles laid out in it. To conclude, Raquel rules that the Muslim’s charges are weak and unfounded, since God has always been fairly explicit about his Principle of Justice, by virtue of which he blessed the ‘other’, and therefore He is not found guilty of cheating the Muslim.
Raguel arbitrates between God and the spokesman for Muslims…
God, herein the accused, by Muslim a party aggrieved
Behold! Creator and created, entangled in a heated debate.
Though an intriguing spectacle, a rarity of a kind,
The unrest of it now must abate.
As the spirit of fairness and justice, the seeker of harmony, truth
After hearing both sides, I seek to adjudicate.
O Muslim, you blame your Lord,
For showering, upon unbelievers, His favors and grants.
Whilst you, the pious devotees, suffer His rage and neglect
And thus these resentful chants!
You brandish your victories with wars and swords,
Can we hear, too, of thy creative, intellectual advance?
O brazen plaintiff, like a jealous lover
Charges of infidelity, towards God, you submit
For from you He snatched the world’s reins
And passed to ‘others’ whom you deem unfit,
Whilst you found yourself stranded, empty handed, mere promises
Your enemy brims with joyous riches, so enviously you covet
Conceitedly, you repeat: “Without our existence
The humankind would cease to remember Him.”
Such arrogant self-importance mirrors just the kind
That got Azazil exiled for refusing to submit to Adam
And God’s abandonment, you view as the smirking triumph of ‘kufr’
‘Kufr’ and this ingratitude, yet, could be one and the same!
O God of all the worlds, comprehensible and unknown
To his accusations of infidelity, You reply with Your vital decree
Your law of Justice, eternal and universal
Rewards non-Muslims, for their Muslimness, equally
Those who seek, who work, and thus deserve
Are granted with splendor of powers that be
This jury then inquires you, O oblivious Muslim
That while you profess to uphold Tawhid, so you claim
How could you remain seemingly ignorant
Of Al-‘Adl, your Lord’s most striking name?
Your God avers to be more than an entity Just,
But Justice and Him are to be one and the same
You declare you walked the earth
Holding Quran close to your heart
Open and Read; therein he says unmistakably He would not
Deal with anyone in ways unjust
Nor does He wrong peoples
But it is they who themselves hurt
Your case, O Muslim, turns weaker,
More on His Justice do we dwell,
That if you don’t exert to change your condition
He surely never will
Where, then, do we find a promise violated
When He does not promise what He won’t fulfill
Your God then bestows success
Upon ones who work for it
For Him a non-Muslim, assiduous and creative
Is a vicegerent, better than a sulky slothful Muslim
By a simple rule of Justice,
Not your forsaken fancy, nor His heedless whim.
Has it occurred to you, in the moments of introspection?
That according ‘unbelievers’ riches, the favours and the reins of the world
Merely springs from His promise of Divine Justice
They appeared more deserving, more striving – thus more Muslim – in eyes of your Lord
Thus the premise of your complaint
Breaks and falls apart
When he spoke these words eternal:
Nought shall be granted unto human but what he is striving for
He addressed to humankind: believers, unbelievers alike
Are you unfamiliar with the ways of your God whom you claim to adore?
That glorious past, the lost esteem, you may well restore
If you complain less, and strive more
To the standards of justice, thy allegations do not hold
So close the case, to turn a leaf anew
Thus make your peace, and cure your fancies
For thy Lord hasn’t broken a covenant with you
Your understanding of the covenant, His principles and promises,
Merely turned out to be flawed: deluded, untrue
 From fifth to tenth stanzas in the Complaint, there are repeated references to the martial accomplishments of Muslims, and little or no mention of accomplishments in the field of science, literature, intellect, knowledge, creativity etc.
 The Complaint mentions that ‘kufr’ smirks at the losing Muslims; ironically ‘kufr’ does not necessarily mean theological dividing line between Muslims and non-Muslims. It is used in the Quran (14:7) in the sense of denoting ingratitude. I submit, when Muslims refuse to acknowledge favors granted to them and incessantly ‘complain’, they can also be accused of ‘kufr’.
 A term to denote that being Muslim, for Iqbal, does not merely entail professing shahadah, but it also involves a sense of self-respect, struggle, personal growth and development, a set of attitudes that can fairly well be embodied by non-Muslims.
 Al-‘Adl is one of Allah’s ninety-nine attributes which implies that God is Justice. Adl, in itself, means justice; Justice, therefore, is not merely a characteristic of Allah, but rather Allah is the embodiment, the realization of Justice. Therefore, anyone claiming to know Allah cannot miss this aspect of his existence.
 Translations by Muhammad Asad: Quran 18:49; For they will find all that they ever wrought [now] facing them, and [will know that] thy Sustainer does not wrong anyone.
 Quran 16:118; And no wrong did We do to them, but it was they who persistently wronged themselves.
 Quran 13:11; Verily, God does not change men’s condition unless they change their inner selves.
 Quran 3:194; Verily, Thou never failest to fulfil Thy promise!
 Quran 53:39; And that nought shall be accounted unto man but what he is striving for.